Cement-Based Stabilization of Zinc Sulphate Soil
The City-owned South-East False Creek area in Vancouver is being transformed into a sustainable development of residential units and commercial space. The first phase of the development will house approximately 2,800 athletes and officials during the 2010 Winter Games. This site was formerly used by a zinc plating plant, and the soil was contaminated with zinc sulphate. A small portion of the total hazardous volume was considered leachable.
Quantum Environmental Group had anticipated the contamination and provided a cost-effective option for stabilization. They treated approximately 280 tonnes of contaminated soil using a percentage of type GU Portland cement.
The cement reduced the leachability characteristics of the soil and raised the pH level, thereby rendering the material non-hazardous. The zinc contamination was completely treated and this area of South-East False Creek could continue to be redeveloped.
What Is Cement-Based S/S?
Solidification/stabilization (S/S) is a widely used treatment for the management and disposal of a broad range of contaminated materials and wastes – particularly those contaminated with substances classified as hazardous in the United States. The treatment involves mixing a binding reagent into the contaminated substance. This process protects human health and the environment by immobilizing contaminants within the treated material, preventing them from migrating to plants, animals and humans.
S/S treatment has been used to treat radioactive wastes since the 1950s and hazardous wastes since the 1970s. S/S continues as a cornerstone treatment technology for the management of radioactive and hazardous wastes, as well as site remediation and Brownfield redevelopment. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) considers S/S an established treatment technology. EPA has selected S/S treatment for 24% of its Superfund source-control remedial actions.
How S/S Works
S/S treatment involves mixing a binding reagent into the contaminated substance. Although the terms solidification and stabilization sound similar, they describe different effects that the binding reagents create to immobilize hazardous constituents. Solidification describes changes in the physical properties of a contaminated substance. The desired changes usually include an increase in compressive strength, a decrease in permeability, and encapsulation of hazardous constituents. Stabilization refers to chemical changes of the hazardous constituents in the treated substance. The desired changes include converting the constituents into a form that is less soluble, mobile, or toxic.
Effects of Binding Reagents on Waste – Inorganic & Organic
Commonly used binding reagents include Portland cement, cement kiln dust (CKD), and a number of proprietary reagents. Portland cement is a generic material principally used in concrete for construction. This material is also a versatile S/S binding reagent with the ability to both solidify and stabilize a wide variety of wastes. Portland cement-based mix designs have been the most popular S/S treatments and have been applied to a greater variety of wastes than any other S/S binding reagent.
Cement is frequently selected for the reagent’s ability to:
- chemically bind free liquids
- reduce the permeability of the waste form
- encapsulate waste particles, surrounding them with an impermeable coating
- chemically fix hazardous constituents by reducing their solubility
- help reduce the toxicity of some contaminants
This is accomplished by bringing about physical changes to the waste form and, often, chemical changes to the hazardous constituents themselves. Cement-based S/S has been used to treat wastes that have either or both inorganic and organic hazardous constituents.
Due to the great variation of waste constituents and media, a mix of reagents should be designed specifically for each waste that is to be treated. Mix designs often include by-products or additives in addition to Portland cement. Fly ash is often used to capitalize on the pozzolanic effect of this material when mixed with hydrating Portland cement. CKD and slag have minor cementitious properties and are sometimes used for economy. Lime can be used to adjust pH or to drive off water utilizing the high heat of hydration produced by these S/S binders.
|Owner||City of Vancouver|
|Engineer||SNC Lavalin Morrow Environmental|
|Contractor||Quantum Environmental Group|